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Accelerates Injury Repair

Injured muscle fibres were completely repaired at week six in the CO2-treated group but only partially repaired in the untreated group.

Expression levels of genes and proteins related to muscle protein synthesis were significantly higher in the CO2-treated group 

Significantly more capillaries four weeks after injury.

CONCLUSION: Transcutaneous CO2 application can accelerate recovery after muscle injury in rats.

We reported that carbon dioxide (CO2) water bathing accelerates skeletal muscle regeneration

MyoD and myogenin play roles in muscle regeneration

Tap water and CO2 (1,000 ppm) water bathing were performed at 37 °C for 30 minutes once a day.

MyoD and myogenin were increased in the IC, ITW, and ICO2 groups compared with the NI group

CONCLUSION: CO2 water bathing after muscle injury appears to induce an increase in the expression of myogenin.

CO2 therapy improved limited-extension ROM in the prevention group at 2 weeks (22° ± 2°) and 4 weeks (29° ± 1°) and in the treatment group at 2 weeks

Muscular factors decreased in treated rats in the prevention group at 2 weeks (8° ± 2°) and 4 weeks (14°± 1°) and in the treatment group at 2 weeks (14 ± 1°) compared with untreated rats (15° ± 1°, 4.85-9.42; 16° ± 1°, 1.24-3.86; and 17° ± 2°, 1.16-5.34, respectively; all p < 0.05).

The therapy improved articular factors in the prevention group at 2 weeks (4° ± 1°) and 4 weeks (6° ± 1°) and in the treatment group at 2 weeks (8° ± 1°) compared with untreated rats (10° ± 1°, 4.05-7.05; 12° ± 1°, 5.18-8.02; and 11° ± 2°, 1.73-5.50, respectively; all p < 0.05).

CO2 therapy decreased muscle fibrosis in the prevention group at 2 weeks (p < 0.001). The expression of collagen Type 1, α1 mRNA in the biceps femoris decreased in treated rats in the prevention group at 2 and 4 weeks compared with untreated rat (p = 0.002 and p = 0.008, respectively)

CO2 therapy decreased transforming growth factor beta immunolabeling in joint capsules in the rats in the prevention group at 2 weeks.

CONCLUSION: CO2 therapy may be useful for preventing and treating contractures after spinal cord injuries. CO2 therapy particularly appears to be more effective as a prevention and treatment strategy in early-stage contractures before irreversible degeneration occurs, as shown in a rat model.